anxiety, body image, depression, LVAD, personal well-being



  1. Melnikov, Semyon PhD, RN
  2. Abuhazira, Miri MA, RN
  3. Golobov, Dimitry MA, RN
  4. Yaari, Victoria MA, RN
  5. Jaarsma, Tiny PhD, RN
  6. Ben Gal, Tuvia MD


Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) support the diseased heart of patients with advanced heart failure and are used as a bridge to heart transplantation or as destination therapy for patients ineligible for heart transplantation. Body image changes, as well as anxiety and depression, are prevalent among patients with an implanted LVAD.


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between body image and personal well-being among patients with an implanted LVAD and, if it does, whether it is moderated by anxiety and depression.


Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, a convenience sample of 30 adult patients with an implanted LVAD (mean age, 63 +/- 10; 90% male) from the outpatient facility of a tertiary medical center completed validated instruments including the Body Image Scale, Cosmetic Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Personal Well-being Index, from October 2017 to February 2018. Results were subjected to multivariate linear regression and bootstrap moderation analyses.


Results: Eleven patients (37%) had below-average personal well-being scores, and 14 patients (47%) had below-average body image scores. Seven (23%) had either anxiety or depression, and 11 (37%) had both anxiety and depression. Body image was found to be a significant predictor of personal well-being (t = 2.16, P = .04). When anxiety and depression were present, body image (t = 2.08, P = .049), depression (t = 2.53, P = .018), and the interaction between body image and depression (t = -2.1, P = .047) were significantly associated with personal well-being.


Conclusions: Body image significantly predicted personal well-being among patients with an implanted LVAD. Depression alone, or depression combined with anxiety, moderated the relationships between body image and personal well-being. The current results may help to heighten healthcare providers' awareness of body image perception among patients with an implanted LVAD.