1. Leap, Jennifer DO
  2. Arshad, Obaid MD
  3. Cheema, Tariq MD, FCCP, MMM
  4. Balaan, Marvin MD


This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including the physiological mechanisms that are known precursors. The roles of environmental and genetic causes are considered. [alpha]1-Antitrypsin deficiency is also discussed as it relates to the development of airflow obstruction.