bone mineral density, children, elderly, exercise, fracture, osteoporosis



  1. Bloomfield, Susan A. PhD, FACSM


Minimizing the human and economic cost of osteoporotic fractures in the American population is an important goal. Regular physical activity can contribute to maximizing peak bone mass early in life and to minimizing age-related bone loss in older adults. Weight-bearing endurance activities at moderately high intensities and resistance training appear to be beneficial, with the largest benefits accruing to individuals with normal reproductive hormone profiles and sufficient dietary calcium intake. More research is required to determine the optimal exercise regimen for children and adults for maximizing bone strength and to test the effectiveness of exercise combined with common medications prescribed for osteoporosis.