critical caring, empowered caring, public health nursing, social justice, Watson's theory of human caring



  1. Falk-Rafael, Adeline PhD, RN


Critical caring is proposed as a hybrid, midrange theory that builds on nursing science and critical feminist theories. As such, it has the potential to root public health nursing practice in an expanded nursing caring science that reincorporates the social justice agenda characteristic of early public health nursing practice but not featured prominently in contemporary nursing theories. Critical caring transforms the carative processes of Watson's theory into 7 carative health-promoting processes that form the "core" of public health nursing practice and reflect the legacy and reality of public health nursing practice.