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dyslipidemia, financial stress, gender differences, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity



  1. Kuo, Wan-chin
  2. Oakley, Linda D.
  3. Brown, Roger L.
  4. Hagen, Erika W.
  5. Barnet, Jodi H.
  6. Peppard, Paul E.
  7. Bratzke, Lisa C.


Background: Financial stress is associated with higher prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease, but the extent to which this association differs by type of metabolic abnormalities or gender is unclear.


Objectives: The study aims were (a) to examine the association between financial stress and the prevalence of common metabolic abnormalities and (b) to test the association for gender differences.


Methods: A cross-sectional secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Retirement and Sleep Trajectories study, an ancillary study of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort study. Composite indicator structural equation alpha modeling with a stacking approach was applied in the data analysis.


Results: After controlling for covariates, financial stress was positively associated with the prevalence of abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia, with significant gender differences. Among men, financial stress was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia. Among women, financial stress was positively associated with the prevalence of prediabetes, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia.


Conclusion: Men living with financial stress are more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia, a specific metabolic abnormality and risk factor for acute cardiovascular events. However, financial stress in women is associated with a broader array of metabolic abnormalities (e.g., dyslipidemia, prediabetes, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome), highlighting a potential risk of multiple chronic conditions later in life.