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adjuvant drugs, analgesia, opioid-related adverse events, opioid-sparing therapy, ORAE, pain control, post-op pain



  1. Barnett, Taylor BSN, RN
  2. Denke, Linda PhD, RN, CCRC


Abstract: The analgesic properties of opioids make them valuable pharmacologic options for patients with severe post-op pain, but healthcare providers must be cautious due to opioid-related adverse reactions. This article reviews select nonopioid adjuvant and adjunctive medications, as well as select nonpharmacologic therapies, as part of a multimodal approach to postoperative analgesia. The role of nurses in assessing, monitoring, and educating patients is also explored.