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Substantial research supports the fact that positive outcomes are associated with an array of interventions. Two excellent resources are "Non-pharmacological Management" in the educational pack Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (2003), published by the International Psychogeriatric Society (to order, e-mail, and the evidence-based protocol Non-Pharmacological Management of Agitated Behavior in Persons with Alzheimer Disease and Other Chronic Dementing Conditions (2004), published by the University of Iowa Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center ( As evidence accumulates in favor of specific approaches, I rely on principles described by Rader and Tornquist a decade ago in Individualized Dementia Care: Creative, Compassionate Approaches (1995), which notes that care-givers must be both "detectives" who look for "clues" about unmet needs and "carpenters" who have a wide variety of "tools."