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  1. Smetana, Keaton S. PharmD, BCCCP
  2. Counts, Jacob PharmD
  3. Sodhi, Angad PharmD
  4. May, Casey C. PharmD, BCCCP


Bleeding related to direct oral anticoagulants accounts for nearly half of emergency department visits annually and until recently there were no reversal antidotes available. As there continues to be a shift in prescribing practices away from warfarin, it is essential to have these reversal agents readily available for the treatment of life-threatening bleeds associated with these anticoagulants. In addition, for agents that continue to lack a targeted reversal agent (eg, low-molecular-weight heparin, antiplatelets, and new antithrombotics), it is imperative that research continues to evaluate improved reversal strategies. This review focuses on target-specific anticoagulation reversal agents currently available in the United States (protamine, idarucizumab, and andexanet alfa) and summarizes agents that are in the pipeline for these anticoagulants and antiplatelets.