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activity, depressive symptoms, function, self-rated health, surgery engagement



  1. Liebzeit, Daniel
  2. Kuo, Wan-chin
  3. Carlson, Beverly
  4. Mueller, Kimberly
  5. Koscik, Rebecca L.
  6. Smith, Marianne
  7. Johnson, Sterling
  8. Bratzke, Lisa


Background: Cognitive and social engagement is an important yet underdocumented aspect of older adult engagement and function.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between cognitive and social engagement and health and psychological outcomes in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults aged approximately 55-70 years.


Methods: Analysis of data from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, a multiwave cohort study with 1,582 participants, using a 1:1 prospective case-control design to examine whether lower cognitive and social engagement at Visit 4 (baseline) is associated with worse health and psychological outcomes at Visit 5 (2 years after Visit 4). Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participants were included in this study if they had complete data on cognitive and social engagement and self-rated health at both visits.


Results: After matching potential covariates using propensity scores, participants with low cognitive and social engagement (cases) at baseline continued to have significantly lower cognitive and social engagement than the controls (participants with high cognitive and social engagement at baseline) at Visit 5, and they had lower self-rated health and higher surgery rate. Depressive symptoms, cognitive status, and hospitalization at Visit 5 did not significantly differ between cases and controls.


Discussion: This study provides evidence supporting cognitive and social engagement as an important marker of early decline in activity engagement that may indicate a potential later decline in functional, psychological, and health outcomes.