Aging, Depression, Ecological momentary assessment, Feasibility studies, Wearable electronic device



  1. Cho, Youngshin MSN, RN
  2. Lim, Kyuhee BSN, RN
  3. Lee, Sunghee PhD
  4. Kim, Yuntae MA
  5. Kim, Mijung BSN, MA, RN
  6. Kim, Chang Oh MD, PhD
  7. Kim, Youkyung BSN, RN
  8. Kim, Heejung PhD, RN, GNP


The Internet of Medical Things is promising for monitoring depression symptoms. Therefore, it is necessary to develop multimodal monitoring systems tailored for elderly individuals with high feasibility and usability for further research and practice. This study comprised two phases: (1) methodological development of the system; and (2) system validation to evaluate its feasibility. We developed a system that includes a smartphone for facial and verbal expressions, a smartwatch for activity and heart rate monitoring, and an ecological momentary assessment application. A sample of 21 older Koreans aged 65 years and more was recruited from a community center. The 4-week data were collected for each participant (n = 19) using self-report questionnaires, wearable devices, and interviews and were analyzed using mixed methods. The depressive group (n = 6) indicated lower user acceptance relative to the nondepressive group (n = 13). Both groups experienced positive emotions, had regular life patterns, increased their self-interest, and stated that a system could disturb their daily activities. However, they were interested in learning new technologies and actively monitored their mental health status. Our multimodal monitoring system shows potential as a feasible and useful measure for acquiring mental health information about geriatric depression.