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artificial intelligence, difficult I.V. access, electrical stimulation, I.V., multispectral cameras, near-infrared spectroscopy, phlebotomy, transillumination, ultrasonography, venous access



  1. Kaganovskaya, Marcel DNP, APRN, FNP-BC, FNP-C, PMHNP-BC, CCRN, CHPN, VA-BC(TM)
  2. Capitulo, Kathleen Leask PhD, RN, FAAN, FNYAM, IIWCC, C-CNS
  3. Wuerz, Lorelle PhD, RN, NEA-BC, VA-BC(TM)


Abstract: New, evidence-based technologies can improve venous access for phlebotomy and I.V. insertion, especially in patients with difficult I.V. access. This article discusses adjunctive vein access tools that can improve the success of first-time blood draws and peripheral I.V. insertion.