EEG, electroencephalogram, electrode, medical device, neonate, pediatric, pressure injury, quality improvement, skin injury



  1. Blazier, Laura A. MSN, RN, ACCNS-P, RNC-NIC
  2. Boyle, Frances A. BA
  3. Cooper, Kristin L. MBA, R.EEG/EPT, CLTM, CNIM, RPSGT, RST
  4. Wing, Sarah E. MD
  5. Stefanescu, Beatrice M. MD, MBA, MS


OBJECTIVE: To lengthen the days between electroencephalogram electrode-related pressure injury (EERPI) to 100 EERPI-free days in 6 months of study implementation with a goal to maintain 200 EERPI-free days thereafter (<=1 EERPI event/year).


METHODS: This quality improvement study took place in a level IV neonatal ICU over three epochs spanning 2 years: epoch 1 or baseline (January-June 2019), epoch 2 or implementation of intervention (July-December 2019), and epoch 3 or sustainment (January-December 2020). A daily electroencephalogram (EEG) skin assessment tool, introduction in practice of a flexible hydrogel EEG electrode, and successive rapid-cycle staff-education sessions were key interventions of the study.


RESULTS: Seventy-six infants were monitored for 214 continuous EEG (cEEG) days, of which six (13.2%) developed EERPI in epoch 1. Eighty infants were monitored for 193 cEEG days, of which two (2.5%) developed EERPI in epoch 2. One hundred thirty-nine infants were monitored for 338 cEEG days, and none developed EERPI in epoch 3. There was no statistical difference with respect to the median cEEG days among study epochs. A G-chart of EERPI-free days showed an increase in EERPI-free days from an average of 34 days in epoch 1 to 182 days in epoch 2 and 365 days (or zero harm) in epoch 3. Skin erythema from EEG electrodes was noted during the study.


CONCLUSIONS: The structured study interventions eliminated EERPI events in infants monitored with cEEG. Preventive intervention at the cEEG-electrode level coupled with skin assessment successfully reduced EERPIs in neonates.