1. Peterman, James E. PhD
  2. Arena, Ross PhD
  3. Myers, Jonathan PhD
  4. Ades, Philip A. MD
  5. Bonikowske, Amanda R. PhD
  6. Harber, Matthew P. PhD
  7. Marzolini, Susan PhD
  8. Savage, Patrick D. MS
  9. Squires, Ray W. PhD
  10. Lavie, Carl J. MD
  11. Kaminsky, Leonard A. PhD


Purpose: Nonexercise predictions of peak oxygen uptake (V[spacing dot above]O2peak) are used clinically, yet current equations were developed from cohorts of apparently healthy individuals and may not be applicable to individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our purpose was to develop a CVD-specific nonexercise prediction equation for V[spacing dot above]O2peak.


Methods: Participants were from the Fitness Registry and Importance of Exercise International Database (FRIEND) with a diagnosis of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or heart failure (HF) who met maximal effort criteria during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (n = 15 997; 83% male; age 63.1 +/- 10.4 yr). The cohort was split into development (n = 12 798) and validation groups (n = 3199). The prediction equation was developed using regression analysis and compared with a previous equation developed on a healthy cohort.


Results: Age, sex, height, weight, exercise mode, and CVD diagnosis were all significant predictors of V[spacing dot above]O2peak. The regression equation was:


V[spacing dot above]O2peak (mL [middle dot] kg-1 [middle dot] min-1) = 16.18 - (0.22 x age [yr]) + (3.63 x sex [male = 1; female = 0]) + (0.14 x height [cm]) - (0.12 x weight [kg]) + (3.62 x mode [treadmill = 1; cycle = 0]) - (2.70 x CABG [yes = 1, no = 0]) - (0.31 x MI [yes = 1, no = 0]) + (0.37 x PCI [yes = 1, no = 0]) - (4.47 x HF [yes = 1, no = 0]). Adjusted R2 = 0.43; SEE = 4.75 mL [middle dot] kg-1 [middle dot] min-1.


Compared with measured V[spacing dot above]O2peak in the validation group, percent predicted V[spacing dot above]O2peak was 141% for the healthy cohort equation and 100% for the CVD-specific equation.


Conclusions: The new equation for individuals with CVD had lower error between measured and predicted V[spacing dot above]O2peak than the healthy cohort equation, suggesting population-specific equations are needed for predicting V[spacing dot above]O2peak; however, errors associated with nonexercise prediction equations suggest V[spacing dot above]O2peak should be directly measured whenever feasible.