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  1. Dinwiddie, Lesley C. MSN, RN, FNP, CNN
  2. Burrows-Hudson, Sally MS, RN, CNN
  3. Peacock, Eileen J. MSN, RN, CNN, CIC


This article aims at ensuring that all nurses can recognize the signs and symptoms of imminent kidney failure and understand the importance of early referral to a nephrology team. For nurses who don't have specialty training in nephrology, it provides an overview of the progression of the disease in its late stages, as well as nursing interventions intended to enhance health, preserve kidney function as long as possible, and help patients and families make informed decisions about kidney replacement therapy.