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acute confusion, hip and knee surgery, music, older adults, pain



  1. McCaffrey, Ruth ND, ARNP-BC
  2. Locsin, Rozzano PhD, RN


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music listening in older adults following hip or knee surgery. Acute confusion and pain after surgery can increase length of stay and reduce function. Study results demonstrate a reduction in acute confusion and pain and improved ambulation and higher satisfaction scores in older adults who listened to music.