aromatherapy, essential oils, nurse-driven protocol, pain management, postoperative care, self-efficacy, Self-Efficacy in Providing Non-Drug therapies (SEND) tool



  1. Manning, Mollie H.
  2. Nix, Elizabeth S.


ABSTRACT: A nurse-driven aromatherapy program investigated the effect on nurses' self-efficacy when using an essential oil inhalation protocol to reduce patients' postoperative pain and associated symptoms. After viewing an investigator-developed training module, staff nurses implemented aromatherapy. Results of changes in nurses' report of self-efficacy were evaluated using the Self-Efficacy in Providing Non-Drug therapies (SEND) survey tool. Results support that an integrated approach of adding nonpharmacologic pain management to postoperative pain and nausea care may increase nurse self-efficacy.