1. Textor, Laura Hanssen MSN, APRN, RN-C
  2. Porock, Davina PhD, RN


Pain is a significant health issue, especially among hospitalized patients and elders. Nurses are the key to effective pain management; however, several studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that nurses lack the knowledge necessary to manage pain effectively. Staff development educators have used a number of education methods to address this deficit. Additionally, educators in staff development have the task of providing education in an effective and cost-efficient manner. The purpose of this study was to assess the pain knowledge scores of a group of nurses practicing in a rural Midwest retirement community before and at two points after a pain education intervention to determine the effectiveness of Knowles' Adult Learning Theory in increasing and sustaining rural nurses' pain knowledge scores.