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chronic heart failure, health-related quality of life, The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire



  1. Ho, Chao-Chung
  2. Clochesy, John M.
  3. Madigan, Elizabeth
  4. Liu, Chuan-Chieh


Background: Health-related quality of life has emerged as an important outcome in treating and managing patients with heart failure (HF). However, there is no existing instrument for use in Chinese populations.


Objectives: To translate the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) into a Chinese version and to validate it in the clinical setting.


Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of 247 participants with New York Heart Association Class II to III chronic HF were recruited from a cardiovascular outpatient department in Taiwan.


Results: The content validity index was 0.98. Construct validity was supported by exploratory factor analysis, which showed three factors with 20 of 21 items loading above .50, explaining 71% of the variance. Total scale and subscale scores were correlated highly with the reference instruments, indicating satisfactory concurrent and convergent validity. The mean scores of the Chinese version of the MLHFQ were significantly higher among participants with HF than those from a non-HF comparison group. The instrument demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's [alpha] of .95 for the scale and .93 to .95 for the subscales).


Conclusion: The psychometric properties indicate that the Chinese version of the MLHFQ is a valid and reliable instrument for future research. This instrument provides a holistic approach for measuring health-related quality of life in New York Heart Association Class II and III HF patients.