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environment, human rights, Iraq, systems theory, world health



  1. Newman, Susan Dunreath BSN, RN, CRRN


Saddam Hussein's calculated destruction of the marshes of southern Iraq had an overwhelming impact on the marsh ecosystem, the physical environment, and its inhabitants. Hussein succeeded in disrupting the 5000-year-old culture of the Marsh Arabs, severely affecting the health and well-being of this unique culture. Complexity science provides a foundation that supports an appreciation of the effects that changes in environment and climate have on health. Application of a complexity model provides guidance for understanding the intricate networks of connectivity among the components of the ecological system of the marshes of Southern Iraq that is necessary for restoration efforts.