birth, culture, death, family needs, ICU, nursing, patient satisfaction, religion



  1. Davidson, Judy E. RN, DNP, CCRN, FCCM
  2. Boyer, Merri Lynn RN
  3. Casey, Debra RN
  4. Matzel, Stephen Chavez MSW, LCSW
  5. Walden, Chaplain David DDiv


Purpose: Identify patient and family needs specifically related to an in-hospital birth or death. This study aimed to perform a gap analysis between identified needs and current hospital practice, services, and resources.


Methods: With the IRB approval, and purposive sampling using the demographics of a community hospital plus subgroups from problematic cases. Twenty-two semistructured interviews were audiotaped, and 6 lectures and 2 panel discussions were videotaped. Transcriptions were distributed to the research team and manually coded for gaps between current practices versus stated needs. Group process was used to form consensus regarding findings.


Participants: The following subgroups were targeted: Muslim, Baha'i, Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Buddhist, Mormon, Jehovah's Witness, Latino, Filipino, Chinese, African American.


Results: Gaps in available resources, such as prayer books, rugs, and compasses, were identified. Knowledge gaps included many issues such as the Muslim preference for decreasing sedatives at end of life to be able to recite the sacred prayer while dying. Practice issues such as respecting plain-clothed clergy, the impact of "rule-orientation" on family needs, and the universal need to call clergy early were identified.