barriers, elderly people, Chinese, physical exercise



  1. Chou, Kee-Lee PhD
  2. Macfarlane, Duncan J. PhD
  3. Chi, Iris DSW
  4. Cheng, Y. H. PhD


The psychometric and factor-analytic properties of the Chinese Barriers to Exercise (CBE) scale were developed and validated in a Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Exploratory factor analysis identified 10 factors: family, symptoms, equipment, learning, appearance, friend, location, facilities, environment, and excuse. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion-related validity of the CBE were also established. Moreover, we found that self-efficacy on exercise was a mediator in the linkage between CBE and exercise activity. Finally, CBE also moderated the effect of self-efficacy on exercise and exercise behavior. Results suggest that barriers to exercise play an important role in exercise behavior among Hong Kong Chinese older adults and in the relationship between self-efficacy on exercise and exercise behavior.