Buy this Article for $7.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


medication, patient safety, physical environment, work system



  1. Simmons, Debora MSN, RN, CCRN, CCNS
  2. Graves, Krisanne BSN, RN, CPHQ
  3. Flynn, Elizabeth A. PhD, RPh


Frequently, the most critical calculations, considerations, and preparations for patient care and medication administration are made in noisy, dimly lit, and chaotic areas of the nursing unit. Healthcare has begun to recognize the impact of the physical work environment plays in the ability of humans to perform reliably and safely. This article reviews the draft guidelines recently released by the United States Pharmacopeia for public comment for the physical environment to promote safe medication administration.