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  1. Bay, Esther
  2. Sikorskii, Alla
  3. Saint-Arnault, Denise


The purpose of this secondary data analysis, guided by allostatic load theory, was to compare depressive symptoms and their correlates in men and women following mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (n = 159). Using general linear modeling procedures in the Statistical Analysis Software, women reported significantly higher Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scores compared with men. According to the Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory subscales, women also reported higher somatic and motor symptoms and difficulties with memory and cognition. Further, women within the first 6 months of their injury reported higher levels of depressive and depressive-somatic symptoms, perceived chronic stress, pain, memory difficulties, and somatic symptoms. These findings were no longer present at the 6- to 12-month or >12-month cutoffs. Women's depressive symptoms during the early recovery period are explained by higher symptom loads and perceived stress, yet mechanisms responsible for these differences remain to be elucidated. Future research is needed to describe hormonal, perceptual, or brain structure differences that may account for these findings. Findings from such research will most likely to contribute to our understanding of postconcussion syndrome.