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advanced nursing practice, neonatal nurse practitioner, NICU-follow-up, primary care provider, role socialization



  1. Beal, Judy A. DNSc, RN, PNP
  2. Tiani, Teresa B. CS, BSHSA, IBCLC
  3. Saia, Theresa A. MS, RN, CS
  4. Rothstein, Elaine E. MS, RN, CS, CCE


This descriptive correlational study explored the role of neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) in postneonatal intensive care unit follow-up. A random sample of 505 NNPs completed a researcher-developed instrument pretested for reliability and validity. There was overwhelming agreement (96%) that a role exists for NNPs in follow-up. In total, 52% felt qualified to provide follow-up and 22% were currently in the role. NNPs with previous primary care experience (P = 0.010) were more involved in follow-up. NNPs with additional certification (P = 0.016) or previous primary care experience (P = 0.003) felt more qualified to provide follow-up care. Facilitators and barriers to the role were identified by NNPs providing follow-up care.