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health, individuation, older women, quality of life, well-being



  1. Ruffing-Rahal, MaryAnn PhD


This article expands an original model of ecological well-being, incorporating selected themes of Jungian individuation to categorize qualitative well-being experiences of older women. Both individuation and well-being are characterized in terms of pivotal, arresting, and diverse experiences reflecting individuality and wholeness. Examples of individuated well-being include dreaming, self-image expansion, artistic creation and beauty making, and final synthesis. Vignettes are extracted from cases drawn from the investigator's fieldwork with older women.