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cardiovascular disease, children, diabetes



  1. Lipman, Terri H.
  2. Hayman, Laura L.
  3. Fabian, Carolyn V.
  4. DiFazio, Diane A.
  5. Hale, Paula M.
  6. Goldsmith, Barbara M.
  7. Piascik, Patricia C.


Background: The major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with Type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is premature and extensive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD).


Objectives: To determine the prevalence and predictors of hypercholesterolemia and to examine the distribution and interrelationship of risk factors for CVD.


Methods: This observational (mixed-longitudinal) study, guided by an epidemiologic framework, assessed a sample of 140 children with IDDM. Total cholesterol (TC) and diabetes control were measured in the total sample. Standard CVD risk factors were measured in a subsample of 67 children.


Results: Observed frequency of TC greater than the 75th percentile and greater than the 95th percentile was significantly more than expected (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In the total sample, TC-CVD risk factor associations were not observed. However, diabetes control and physical activity were correlated with TC in the risk sample of children at highest risk, as demonstrated by hypercholesterolemia.


Conclusions: Results demonstrate the importance of assessing the lipid profile in children with IDDM and monitoring CVD risk factors in hyperlipidemic children with IDDM. Future research should focus on prospective longitudinal studies in population-based multiethnic samples of children with IDDM.