caring, counseling, miscarriage, women's health



  1. Swanson, Kristen M.


Background: Responses to miscarriage range from relief to devastation, yet there have been no randomized controlled studies that demonstrate significant effects of counseling with women who miscarry.


Objective: To test the effects of caring-based counseling, measurement, and time on the integration of loss (miscarriage impact) and women's emotional well-being (moods and self-esteem) in the first year after miscarrying.


Method: ANCOVA was used in this randomized, longitudinal Solomon four-group experimental investigation. Enrolled were 242; 185 completed. Outcomes included: self-esteem, overall emotional disturbance, anger, depression, anxiety, confusion, overall miscarriage impact, personal significance, devastating event, lost baby, and isolated.


Results: During the first year after loss (a) caring was effective in reducing overall emotional disturbance, anger, and depression; and (b) time passing led to increased self-esteem and decreased anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and personal significance of loss.


Conclusion: Caring, measurement, and time had some positive and significant effects on the integration of loss and enhancement of well-being in the first year subsequent to miscarrying.