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  1. Dellefield, Ken S.
  2. McDougall, Graham J.


The purposes of this study were to test the effects of a 2-week, four-session group intervention with older adults, designed to increase memory self-efficacy and memory performance and to evaluate the influence of depression on memory self-efficacy. A total of 145 community-dwelling older adults (M = 71 years) participated in the study. The intervention significantly increased both memory self-efficacy and memory performance in the treatment group (n = 74). In addition, the treatment group's perception of control in memory-demanding situations was strengthened, and their perception of negative changes in memory over time was diminished. The control group (n = 71) experienced a significant decline in memory self-efficacy over time. Memory performance was not significantly related to memory self-efficacy. Those individuals with depression (M = 7.5), as measured by the short Geriatric Depression Scale, had significantly lower memory self-efficacy scores than those without depression; however, there was no difference in memory performance between the depressed and nondepressed subjects. From the posttest to the follow-up period, depressed subjects receiving the intervention showed a significant decrease in memory self-efficacy, while nondepressed subjects showed no change.