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  1. Urden, Linda D. DNSc, RN, CNA
  2. Roode, Jeanne L. MSN, RN, CNA


Efficiency and productivity are important factors in managing programs and human resources and in determining resource allocation. Absence of practice productivity and efficiency data leads to inappropriate decisions and actions resulting in detrimental outcomes. It is critical that nurse executives and managers have effective measures by which to analyze productivity and to evaluate empirically the effects of management actions and decisions for any proposed or implemented change. The authors describe a work sampling methodology that can be used to establish a data base for evaluating programmatic, staff mix, role redesign, or care delivery model changes.