1. Section Editor(s): Pfeifer, Gail M. MA, RN

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Clostridium difficileinfections in hospitalized U.S. children are rising, according to a retrospective cohort study published online on January 3 in Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database showed an increasing trend in the numbers of cases, from 3,565 in 1997 to 7,779 in 2006. Compared with children who didn't have C. difficile, those who did had higher risks of colectomy or death, longer hospital stays, and higher hospitalization charges. No significant increase was seen, however, in the severity of C. difficile over time. Children with inflammatory bowel disease, immunodeficiency, or other comorbidities and those with antibiotic exposure were at higher risk for infection.