Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


  1. Hori, Masayo RN
  2. Tanaka, Makoto PhD, RN
  3. Suzuki, Yuriko RN
  4. Fukao, Mio RN
  5. Shimizu, Hirakazu RN
  6. Mikoshiba, Naoko MHS, RN
  7. Tateishi, Ryosuke PhD, MD


Although radiofrequency ablation has been accepted as a safe and effective treatment for small hepatocellular carcinoma, there are few studies addressing periprocedural pain. Our study aims were to investigate periprocedural pain and evaluate its related factors. Ninety-nine patients diagnosed as having hepatocellular carcinoma and who underwent radiofrequency ablation were consecutively enrolled. The pain intensity, mental preparation status for radiofrequency ablation, and demographic and clinical characteristics were investigated. We used an 11-point numerical rating scale to assess for pain. Forty-three percent of subjects reported the intensity of periprocedural pain as more than a level of six (severe pain). The longer duration of ablation (rs = .29, p = .004), the number of ablations (rs = .27, p = .008), higher pain anxiety (rs = .42, p < .001), and difficulty sleeping on the previous day (rs = .24, p = .019) were factors related to experiencing more severe pain. The major related factors to severe periprocedural pain were the longer duration of ablation and the more anxiety about pain. Clinicians should offer better information to radiofrequency ablation patients regarding pain expectations and carefully consider periprocedural analgesia requirements.