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intracranial pressure, nursing, nursing interventions, nursing practice



  1. Olson, DaiWai M.
  2. Lewis, Lisa S.
  3. Bader, Mary Kay
  4. Bautista, Cynthia
  5. Malloy, Rachel
  6. Riemen, Kristina E.
  7. McNett, Molly M.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nursing practice in the care of patients with intracranial pressure monitoring. Although standards for care of such patients have been established, there continue to be variations in the nursing practice.


Methods: This was an observational study in which data were collected from 28 nurse-patient dyads at 16 different hospitals across the United States. Each dyad was observed for 2 hours; nursing actions and patient responses including intracranial pressure readings were documented.


Results: Differences in the care of patients with intracranial pressure monitoring were prevalent. Variations in practice were prompted by healthcare provider prescriptions as well as nursing decisions. Prescriptions and interventions were often not supported by the available scientific evidence.


Video Abstract: For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at