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  1. Gass, Jennifer Ann PharmD, MS, BCPS
  2. Weeks, Phillip A. PharmD, BCPS


Warfarin has been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation for more than half a century. Within the last several years, 2 new classes of oral anticoagulants have been introduced as potential alternatives to warfarin for certain indications. The oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, and 2 factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban, are the newest agents approved for use in the United States. These agents have been studied in various areas including stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation, prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, and for reduction of ischemic events following acute coronary syndromes. While these agents do not require routine monitoring of international normalized ratio, these agents may be more challenging to reverse than traditional warfarin therapy. The following review will focus on describing the areas where the new oral anticoagulant agents have been studied, the basic pharmacologic characteristics of each agent, and how to appropriately manage the reversal of these agents when indicated.