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  1. Salem, Benissa E. PhD, MSN, RN
  2. Nyamathi, Adeline PhD, ANP, FAAN
  3. Phillips, Linda R. PhD, RN, FAAN, FGSA
  4. Mentes, Janet C. PhD, APRN, BC, FGSA
  5. Sarkisian, Catherine MD, MSPH
  6. Brecht, Mary-Lynn PhD


Frailty is a public health issue that is experienced by homeless and other vulnerable populations; to date, a frailty framework has not been proposed to guide researchers who study hard-to-reach populations. The Frailty Framework among Vulnerable Populations has been developed from empirical research and consultation with frailty experts in an effort to characterize antecedents, that is, situational, health-related, behavioral, resource, biological, and environmental factors that contribute to physical, psychological, and social frailty domains and impact adverse outcomes. As vulnerable populations continue to age, a greater understanding of frailty will enable the development of nursing interventions.