1. Brandon, Anna R. PhD, MSCS, ABPP


Psychosocial and behavioral interventions are used to address substance use and dependence during pregnancy, having particular value when providers and pregnant women are seeking to minimize drug exposures to the fetus. Numerous factors, including difficulty recruiting participants and the ethical challenges to conducting randomized controlled trials with women during pregnancy, have limited research in this area. The existing literature, however, does contain early investigations into the practicality and efficacy of contingency management, motivational support, and cognitive behavioral therapies adapted for pregnant women. This article describes these approaches to treatment, summarizes programmatic examples, and highlights the role nurses may play with this special population.