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  1. Fritz, Deborah PhD, FNP
  2. McKenzie, Patricia MSN, APRN, ANP-BC


Abstract: Patients with pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart failure make frequent visits to the emergency department. Heart failure alone is the reason for more than 1 million emergency department visits annually in the United States. This article describes strategies home care clinicians can use to prevent unnecessary emergency department visits for patients with pneumonia, COPD and heart failure.