construct validity, instrument, psychometric, self-management, structural equation modeling



  1. Kang, Xiaofeng PhD, RN
  2. Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R. PhD, RN, ANP, FAHA
  3. Li, Zheng PhD, RN
  4. Zhang, Jian MD
  5. Lv, Rong RN
  6. Guo, Jinyu RN


Background: The Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) is an empirically tested instrument for measuring the self-care of patients with heart failure.


Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a simplified Chinese version of the SCHFI and provide evidence for its construct validity.


Methods: A total of 182 Chinese with heart failure were surveyed. A 2-step structural equation modeling procedure was applied to test construct validity.


Results: Factor analysis showed 3 factors explaining 43% of the variance. Structural equation model confirmed that self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence are indeed indicators of self-care, and self-care confidence was a positive and equally strong predictor of self-care maintenance and self-care management. Moreover, self-care scores were correlated with the Partners in Health Scale, indicating satisfactory concurrent validity.


Conclusion: The Chinese version of the SCHFI is a theory-based instrument for assessing self-care of Chinese patients with heart failure.