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African American, AIDS, dimensional analysis, females, HIV, hope, nursing, Snyder's Hope Theory



  1. Kennedy, Toshua W.


ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects heterosexual African American females (AAFs) with morbidity and mortality rates higher than females of any other race, accounting for the fourth largest number of HIV infections in the United States. Defining hope is important for understanding and therapeutic use of the concept in AAFs with HIV. A literature review exploring uses for this concept among HIV-positive AAFs, and a dimensional analysis, revealed positive and negative influences for hope. Truthful and positive messages need to be developed for this population.