1. Smith, Joan R. PhD, RN, NNP-BC
  2. Donze, Ann MSN, NNP-BC
  3. Wolf, Maggie MSN, NNP-BC
  4. Smyser, Christopher D. MD
  5. Mathur, Amit MD
  6. Proctor, Enola K. PhD


Since the Institute of Medicine's landmark report To Err Is Human, extensive efforts to improve patient safety have been undertaken. However, wide-scale improvement has been limited, sporadic, and inconsistent. Implementation of evidence-based interventions remains a challenge, resulting in unwarranted variations in care. Three main categories of problems in healthcare delivery are defined as overuse, underuse, and misuse of medical services, resulting in inappropriate care, inefficiencies, and poor quality. Although broad acknowledgement that these categories of quality problems exist, there are limited standards for measuring their overall impact. This article aims to discuss the important role of implementation science in advancing evidence-based practice, using neonatal therapeutic hypothermia for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as an exemplar for examining appropriateness of care.