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gender, heart failure, symptoms



  1. Lee, Christopher S. PhD, RN, FAHA
  2. Hiatt, Shirin O. MPH, MS, RN
  3. Denfeld, Quin E. BSN, RN
  4. Chien, Christopher V. MD
  5. Mudd, James O. MD
  6. Gelow, Jill M. MD, MPH


Background: There are several gender differences that may help explain the link between biology and symptoms in heart failure (HF).


Objective: The aim of this study was to examine gender-specific relationships between objective measures of HF severity and physical symptoms.


Methods: Detailed clinical data, including left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular internal end-diastolic diameter, and HF-specific physical symptoms were collected as part of a prospective cohort study. Gender interaction terms were tested in linear regression models of physical symptoms.


Results: The sample (101 women and 101 men) averaged 57 years of age and most participants (60%) had class III/IV HF. Larger left ventricle size was associated with better physical symptoms for women and worse physical symptoms for men.


Conclusion: Decreased ventricular compliance may result in worse physical HF symptoms for women and dilation of the ventricle may be a greater progenitor of symptoms for men with HF.