1. Jansen Lockett, Jacqueline DNP, NE-BC
  2. Barkley, Leslie MSN, RN, ACNS-BC, CAPA, CMSRN, OCN
  3. Stichler, Jaynelle DNS, RN, NEA-BC, FACHE, FAAN
  4. Palomo, Jeanne BSN, RN
  5. Kik, Bozena MSN, RN, CMSRN, NE-BC
  6. Walker, Christopher MS, RN, NP, CNS, CCRN, CEN
  7. Donnelly, Janet MS, RN-BC, ACNS-BC, PCCN
  8. Willon, Judy BSN, RN, CCRN
  9. Sanborn, Julie MS, RD, CNSC
  10. O'Byrne, Noeleen MS, RN


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to define and create a conceptual model for peer-to-peer accountability (P to PA).


BACKGROUND: Many organizations cite the importance of peer accountability (PA) as essential in ensuring patient safety. Professionalism in nursing requires self-regulation of practice and PA. Although discussed in the literature, P to PA is not conceptually defined.


METHODS: A grounded theory study design with constant comparative data collection and analysis was used to explore nurses' definitions of P to PA and their perceptions of motivators and barriers to engaging in P to PA. Transcripts of digital recordings of all interviews were analyzed using line-by-line coding until identified themes emerged.


RESULTS: P to PA was defined as the act of speaking up when one observes a peer not practicing to acceptable standards. A conceptual model illustrates the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of P to PA.


CONCLUSIONS: P to PA is the professional responsibility of every nurse and healthcare provider and is essential for safe patient care. The conceptual definition facilitates actualization of P to PA in practice.