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clinical experience, nursing process, nursing students, self-confidence, self-efficacy, simulation



  1. Kimhi, Einat MHA, RN
  2. Reishtein, Judith L. PhD, RN, CNE
  3. Cohen, Miri MBS, RN
  4. Friger, Michael PhD
  5. Hurvitz, Nancy MN, RN
  6. Avraham, Rinat MHA, RN


This study compared the effect of simulation and clinical experience timing on self-confidence/self-efficacy for the nursing process. Using a randomized, double-crossover design, self-efficacy was measured 3 times. Although self-efficacy was significantly higher at time 1 for students who had clinical experience, there was no difference between the groups at the end of the course (time 2). Thus, simulation increased self-confidence/self-efficacy equivalently if placed either before or after clinical experience.