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warm compress, episiotomy, perineal trauma, postpartum pain intensity



  1. Akbarzadeh
  2. , Marzieh
  3. Vaziri, Faride MSc
  4. Farahmand, Mahnaz MSc
  5. Masoudi, Zahra MSc
  6. Amooee, Sedigheh MD
  7. Zare, Najaf PhD


BACKGROUND: Genital trauma during vaginal delivery may result from episiotomy, spontaneous perineal tears (perineum, vagina), or both. In 2012, this study aimed to investigate the effect of warm compress bistage intervention on the rate of episiotomy, perineal trauma, and postpartum pain intensity in the primiparous woman with delayed Valsalva maneuver.


METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, which was performed in hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, in 2012-2013, 150 women were randomly divided into 2 groups: 1 intervention and 1 control. The intervention group received warm compress bistage intervention at 7-cm and 10-cm dilatation and zero position during the first and second stages of labor for 15 to 20 minutes, whereas the control group received the hospitals' routine care. After delivery, the prevalence of episiotomy; intact perineum; location, degree, and length of rupture; and postpartum pain intensity were assessed in the 2 groups. Following that, the data were analyzed with SPSS statistical software (version 16) using [chi]2 test, t test, and odds ratio.


RESULTS: The results revealed a significant difference between the intervention and control groups regarding the frequency of intact perinea (27% vs 6.7%) and the frequency of episiotomy (45% vs 90.70%). In addition, the frequency of the location of rupture (P = .019), mean length of episiotomy incision (P = .02), and mean intensity of pain the day after delivery (P < .001) were significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group. However, the rate of ruptures was higher in the intervention group.


CONCLUSIONS: Warm compress bistage intervention was effective in reducing episiotomies and the mean length of episiotomy incision, reducing pain after delivery, and increasing the rate of intact perinea. However, the rate of ruptures slightly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group.