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attitudes, hallucinations, nursing students, self-efficacy, simulation



  1. Kepler, Britney B. DNP, PMHNP
  2. Lee, Heeyoung PhD, PMHNP-BC
  3. Kane, Irene PhD, RN, CNAA, HFI
  4. Mitchell, Ann M. PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN


The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged.