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case management, drug use, forensic nursing, multiple sex partners, peer coaching, prisoners



  1. Nyamathi, Adeline M.
  2. Zhang, Sheldon X.
  3. Wall, Sarah
  4. Hall, Elizabeth A.
  5. Salem, Benissa E.
  6. Farabee, David
  7. Faucette, Mark
  8. Yadav, Kartik


Background: Transitioning into society after release from incarceration presents real challenges for male offenders; in California, up to 60% return to prison within 3 years after release. The risk for ongoing drug use and having sex with multiple partners is a significant challenge for ex-offenders preparing to enter the community.


Objectives: The aims are to describe drug use and sexual behavior (sex with multiple partners) prior to incarceration and 6 and 12 months after study enrollment using data obtained as part of a randomized controlled trial.


Methods: This is a planned secondary analysis of data obtained as part of a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effects of intensive peer coaching and nurse case management, intensive peer coaching, and brief nurse counseling on hepatitis A and B vaccination adherence compared to a usual care control treatment that also included brief peer coaching and brief nurse counseling. Self-report data from subjects enrolled at one residential drug treatment facility in Los Angeles were captured at three time points: baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up.


Results: Findings showed substantive and significant reductions in drug use and engaging in sex with multiple partners 6 months after enrollment into the study compared to the baseline data, but results did not differ by study condition. At 12-month follow-up, drug use and sex with multiple partners increased but remained less than at baseline levels.


Discussion: Sustaining reductions in drug use and engaging in sex with multiple partners remains a challenge after incarceration.