1. Tahan, Hussein M. PhD, RN


Purpose/Objectives: This article describes a client advocacy model for use by case managers. It delineates necessary competencies for the case manager and shares important strategies for effective client advocacy.


Primary Practice Setting(s): All practice settings across the continuum of health and human services and case managers of diverse professional backgrounds.


Findings and Conclusion: Advocacy is a primary role and necessary competency of professional case managers functioning in various care settings. It is rooted in ethical theory and principles. Successful case managers apply ethical principles of advocacy at every step of the case management process and in the decisions they make. Part II of this two-part article presents a client advocacy model for case managers to apply in their practice, describes the role of advocacy in client engagement, and identifies important strategies and a set of essential competencies for effective case management advocacy. Part I already explored the ethical theories and principles of advocacy, the perception of case management-related professional organizations of advocacy, and the common types of advocacy based on scope, complexity, impact, and reach.


Implications for Case Management: Acquiring foundational knowledge, skills, and competencies in what advocacy is and how to effectively enact its related behaviors is essential for success of case managers and for achieving desired outcomes for both the clients and health care agencies/providers alike. Case management leaders are urged to use the knowledge shared in this article to develop advocacy training and competency management programs for their case managers.