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Registration Deadline: February 28, 2019


Disclosure Statement:


The authors and planners have disclosed that they have no financial relationships related to this article.


Provider Accreditation:


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, publisher of Clinical Nurse Specialist will award 1.5 contact hours for this continuing nursing education activity.


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.


This activity is also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for 1.5 contact hours. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, and Florida, CE Broker #50-1223. Your certificate is valid in all states.




* The registration fee for this test is $17.95.




PURPOSE: To provide information on the safety and hazards of using e-cigarettes.


LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:


1. Identify some of the ingredients in e-cigarettes and the demographics of e-cigarette users.


2. Select recognized hazards and potential benefits of using e-cigarettes.


1. Features of e-cigarettes include


a. small amounts of tar.


b. liquid nicotine.


c. large amounts of smoke and ash.


2. As noted in the article, possible ingredients in e-cigarettes include all of the following except


a. lead.


b. mercury.


c. carbon monoxide.


3. The current number of unique vaping flavors is at least


a. 579.


b. 3452.


c. 7764.


4. The group of persons more likely to use e-cigarettes is


a. those who never smoked.


b. former smokers that quit in the past year.


c. former smokers who quit more than 1 year ago.


5. The ethnic group that has the highest percentage of use of e-cigarettes is


a. non-Hispanic American Indian.


b. non-Hispanic white.


c. Hispanics.


6. The demographics of e-cigarette users indicate that


a. more women than men use e-cigarettes.


b. approximately 4.9% of adults use e-cigarettes.


c. 18 to 24 year-olds use e-cigarettes the most often.


7. Regarding the safety of the flavoring agents in e-cigarettes,


a. there is no evidence that they are safe when inhaled.


b. they are regulated by the US Pharmacopeia.


c. they are food grade and have been tested and determined to be safe.


8. The author notes that the diacetyl and/or acetyl propionyl identified in some e-liquid products have been associated with


a. asthma exacerbations.


b. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


c. bronchiolitis obliterans.


9. What substance is created from vaping e-liquid?


a. formaldehyde


b. arsenic


c. ammonia


10. Emerging evidence suggests that e-cigarette aerosols create oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells and trigger all of the following except


a. dose-dependent cell death.


b. accelerated cell division.


c. an inflammatory response.


11. The author notes that which organism becomes more virulent when exposed to electronic vapor?


a. Haemophilus pertussis


b. Staphylococcus aureus


c. Klebsiella pneumoniae


12. Which statement is true regarding the use of e-cigarettes?


a. Serum cotinine levels in e-cigarette users are similar to those in tobacco smokers.


b. The effects of exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol is the same as with cigarette smoke.


c. In some cases, e-cigarette aerosol is more harmful than cigarette smoke.


13. What is contained in some e-cigarette aerosols that is also contained in smoke generators used in the theater industry and in aviation emergency training?


a. propylene glycol


b. napthalene


c. methyl isocyanate


14. Although there is limited evidence on the potential benefits of e-cigarettes, the author reports that e-cigarettes may


a. be more effective than prescription nicotine replacement therapy.


b. reduce the number of persons who start smoking cigarettes.


c. help reduce the number of cigarettes smoked.


15. As part of a recent regulatory expansion by the Food and Drug Administration, manufacturers of e-cigarettes will be required to


a. sell only to persons 25 years or older.


b. obtain permission to market new flavors, starting January 1, 2017.


c. report all ingredients and premarket reviews.


16. The author suggests that when counseling patients about the use of e-cigarettes, clinical nurse specialists should consider that


a. e-cigarettes are not the first choice for smoking cessation.


b. e-cigarettes are safer than tobacco for pregnant women.


c. concomitant use with tobacco cigarettes is a safe compromise.