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  1. Graham, Patrick


Avascular necrosis of bone (AVN), also known as osteonecrosis, ischemic necrosis, or aseptic necrosis, is a progressive pathological process in which compromise of bony vasculature results in death of osseous tissue and bone marrow cells (Jones & Mont, 2014; National Institutes of Health, 2015). This process eventually leads to bony collapse, destruction of the associated joint, and development of arthritis (Jawad, Haleem, & Scully, 2012; Jones & Mont, 2014; Karantanas, 2013; National Institutes of Health, 2015). Although the exact incidence and prevalence are unknown, it is estimated that up to 20,000 new cases of AVN are reported in the United States annually (National Institutes of Health, 2015).