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  1. Miller, Bruce E. MD
  2. Spitzer, Kathy K. BS, CCP


As the fields of pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery advance in complexity and in accountability for clinical and economic outcomes, several issues traditionally associated with the operating room are becoming important to physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists who take care of children after cardiac surgery. The article discusses the concepts of "fast track" cardiac surgery, regional anesthetic techniques, coagulopathies and bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative ultrafiltration, and mechanical circulatory assist devices.