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diabetes mellitus, epidemiology, microvascular, macrovascular



  1. Stanciu, Irinel MD
  2. Peralta, Maylene I. MD
  3. Emanuele, Mary Ann MD
  4. Emanuele, Nicholas V. MD


Major clinical trials have shown that excellent glycemic control, sustained over time, can prevent or delay the microvascular complications of diabetes, including retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. No prospective trial has clearly shown that glycemic intervention can prevent the macrovascular complications of diabetes, such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and amputation. However, a number of landmark clinical trials have shown the efficacy of control of blood pressure and lipids and use of antiplatelet agents (mainly aspirin) in protecting the macrovasculature of individuals with diabetes. In this article, glycemic, blood pressure, lipid, and antiplatelet trials relevant to the treatment of people with type 2 diabetes are reviewed.